SUDAN PAPERS: EXPLAINING THE DARFUR PEACE AGREEMENT

An archival collection of the Sudan papers that analyse the Darfur Peace Agreement and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between Sudan and Southern Sudan in 2005.

2006

Disarming the Janjaweed and Armed Militia

This is the first in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated by the Government and Movement delegations, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This first article asks, how are the Janjaweed and other armed militia to be disarmed? READ MORE

Security for IDPs and Refugees

This is the second in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article asks, how is security to be provided for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees? The first article considered the disarmament of the Janjaweed. ? READ MORE

Compensation and Assitance to Victims

This is the third in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article asks, what provisions are there for victims of the conflict to receive compensation and assistance?  READ MORE

The Transitional Darfur Regional Authority

This is the fourth in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article asks, what is the Transitional Darfur Regional Authority (TDRA) and why was it proposed by the African Union Mediation? READ MORE

How to Include the Different Darfur Movements

This is the fifth in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), including what has happened since the signing on 5 May. This article is concerned with the question of representation of different Movements and fractions of Movements.  READ MORE

Guarantees for the DPA

This is the sixth in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how the Agreement was negotiated in Abuja and how it can be implemented. This article deals with the question: how do we know it can work? What are the mechanisms and guarantees?  READ MORE

Community Peace and Reconciliation

This is the seventh in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated—including which negotiators insisted on which articles—what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article deals with the question of what is next: how the DPA can serve as the foundation for a process of peace and reconciliation among Darfur’s fractured and divided communities. It is important that the letter and spirit of the DPA are properly understood by all Darfurians and other Sudanese, so that the Agreement can be implemented and peace can return to Darfur.  READ MORE

The Comprehensive Ceasefire

This is number eight in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated (and especially what the different negotiators insisted upon), what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article is concerned with one of the first and most important aspects of the Agreement, namely the ceasefire.  READ MORE

The Future of the Movements’ Combatants

This is the ninth in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article focuses on the controversial question of the future of the armed forces of the Movements: how many should be integrated into the national army and other security services, and in what way, and what should happen to the remainder.  READ MORE

DPA10: Land

This is the tenth in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. One of the reasons for this is that it is important for the Sudanese people as a whole—and the people of Darfur especially—to understand the spirit and letter of the DPA, so that it can be implemented so as best to serve the interests of the people and bring lasting peace to Darfur. This article focuses on central question of land tenure. Conflict over land is one of the major reasons for the war in Darfur.  READ MORE

DPA11: Darfurians in the Civil Service and Education

This is the eleventh in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article focuses on the question of Darfurian representation in the national civil service and educational institutions. It presents the arguments put forward by both the Movements’ negotiators and their Government counterparts and the rationale for why the African Union presented its proposals.  READ MORE

DPA12: Human Rights

This is the twelfth in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article focuses on human rights and how they are respected and promoted in the Agreement.  READ MORE

DPA13: Rebuilding Darfur

This is number thirteen in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining how different parts were negotiated, what the paragraphs mean, and how they should be implemented. This article focuses on the question of rebuilding Darfur.  READ MORE

The CPA, the DPA and the EPA

This is fourteenth in a series of articles concerning the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA),
explaining what lies behind the long and complicated text of the Agreement. This article situates the DPA in the context of the Naivasha Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the hoped-for Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement (“EPA”), asking the question, how should we now envision the future of the Sudanese nation?  READ MORE

DPA15: Leadership for Implementing the DPA

This is fifteenth and last in a series of articles explaining the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA), explaining what lies behind the long and complicated text of the Agreement. As these articles have tried to explain, the text of the DPA is strong and reflects the hard work put in by the negotiators on both sides. This final article asks, what kind of leadership will be needed to implement the Agreement?  READ MORE

Explaining the Darfur Peace Agreement

 An open letter to those members of the movements who are still reluctant to sign from the African Union moderators. READ MORE

Without foreign chancelleries and Hollywood’s finest, can Darfur peace deal succeed?

It took four years to negotiate an end to Mozambique’s civil war. That peace, signed in 1992, has lasted until today. The Darfur Peace Agreement, which it was hoped would end the first genocide of the 21st century, was forced through in little more than a year. If it fails to end the conflict in western Sudan, it will be because of its process rather than its provisions. READ MORE

2004

Who are the Darfurians

This paper is an attempt to explain the processes of identity formation that have taken place Darfur over the last four centuries. The basic story is of four overlapping processes of identity formation, each of them primarily associated with a different period in the region’s history. The four are the ‘Sudanic identities’ associated with the Dar Fur sultanate, Islamic identities, the administrative tribalism associated with the 20th century Sudanese state, and the recent polarization of ‘Arab’ and ‘African’ identities, associated with new forms of external intrusion and internal violence. It is a story that emphasizes the much-neglected eastwest axis of Sudanese identity, arguably as important as the north-south axis, and redeems the neglect of Darfur as a separate and important locus for state formation in Sudan, paralleling and competing with the Nile Valley.   READ MORE

2002 - COMMITTEE OF THE CIVIL PROJECT

Freedom from Famine and Creating Democratic Humanitarianism

Sudan is a potentially wealthy country, but it has become chronically vulnerable to famine. It is conventional for drought, desertification, and mistakes in economic policy to be blamed for famine. All these play their role, and drought at least is beyond human agency. But none of these problems makes famine inevitable: famine occurs through the operation of a political, military, economic and social system.  READ MORE

Land Rights, Natural Resources Tenure and Land Reform

Land rights are an essential human right in themselves, especially in a largely rural country
like Sudan where the majority of the people gain their livelihoods from the land. In addition, violations of land and natural resources rights by successive governments have been instrumental in the outbreak of war, so a comprehensive and far-reaching settlement of these issues is essential if Sudan is to achieve peace.  READ MORE

The Rights of Children: A Challenge for the Transition

In this paper, the rights of the child are briefly introduced according to international human rights norms. Dimensions of child rights, in terms of both measures of protection and promotion (such as the rights to education and to a healthy socialization of the child) are highlighted.  READ MORE

Disarmament, Demobilisation, Reintegration and the Rights of Former Combatants

This paper does not discuss the future structure of the armed forces in Sudan. A future
Transitional Government will have to decide whether there should be a unified national army, separate Northern and Southern armed forces, or some other arrangement. It will have to decide how to integrate the numerous military forces that are present in Sudan today. Whatever arrangement is decided upon, it will have to be closely associated with the process of disarmament and demobilisation, which must be considered very carefully.  READ MORE

Freedom of Association

This issue paper will address the human rights questions that arise in the light of the current Sudan Government laws on political parties, the NDA draft law on political parties, the SPLM position on political parties in ‘New Sudan’, and related issues concerning trade unions, professional associations, citizens’ associations, NGOs etc.  READ MORE

Islam, Politics and the State

The question of religion and the state in Sudan is a deeply controversial and divisive issue. This issue paper presents several views about whether religion can be separated from the state, and if so how. The premise of all the views presented here is that the extremist agenda of the National Islamic Front has been proven to be bankrupt. The NIF view will not be defended here.  READ MORE

Nationalism, Federalism and Self-Determination in a Multi-Polar Sudan

The question of self-determination, along with related issues of devolution of power, cultural and community rights and race relations, is one of the most complex and controversial in Sudan. The challenges of self-determination in Southern Sudan have been addressed elsewhere, and the case of the Nuba and Southern Blue Nile peoples has been presented in another issue paper.  READ MORE

Refugees, Expatriates and Internally Displaced Persons

Sudan has an extremely high proportion of citizens displaced inside and outside the country. Ensuring the full participation of these citizens in the social, economic and political life of the country will be a major challenge. Exclusion of substantial sections of these communities is a recipe for disaster.  READ MORE

Poverty Reduction and Development Strategies

The extent of poverty in Sudan is scandalously high. The vast majority of Sudanese citizens live in conditions of low income, high vulnerability to destitution, and poor life chances. Many Sudanese children are malnourished, and a large proportion never live to see the age of five. This level of impoverishment is not only a scandal in its own right, but is a source of political instability and even war.  READ MORE

MACRO-ECONOMIC POLICY, DEBT AND AID

Post-conflict Sudan will be deeply indebted and aid dependent. Experience of post-conflict transitions in Sudan and elsewhere indicates that appropriate economic policies and the correct sequencing of political and economic transitions are essential if the right outcome is to be achieved.  READ MORE