HIV/AIDS PAPERS

An archival collection of papers produced between 2001 and 2006 on a wide range of issues related to addressing HIV/AIDS in the continent.

2006 - GAIN PAPERS

AIDS, SECURITY AND THE MILITARY IN AFRICA: A SOBER APPRAISAL

This article examines four accepted wisdoms about HIV/AIDS and African armies and in each case concludes that substantial revision is necessary in the light of emerging evidence.  READ MORE

HIV/AIDS AS A SOCIETAL SYSTEMS CHALLENGE

This is an overview concept note for the seminar on the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a societal systems challenge. READ MORE

NEWS SOURCES AND HOW THEY DIFFER IN WHAT THEY SAY

The Press have an important role in setting the agenda for HIV/AIDS issues. By keeping the issue in the eyes of the reader, the Press constantly remind readers about its importance and keep it on the political and personal agenda. However, by narrowing the number of voices expressed in the news, the Press are likely to bias the audience towards some aspects of the AIDS epidemic, thereby narrowing the AIDS agenda. READ MORE

AIDS, GOVERNANCE AND QUALITY IN TANZANIAN EDUCATION

This paper will explore the relationships between HIV/AIDS and education in Tanzania, looking particularly at issues of governance. It has been produced as part of the African Civil Society Governance and AIDS Initiative (GAIN), the purpose of which is to investigate the threat that HIV/AIDS poses to the maintenance of stable and democratic governance across Africa.  READ MORE

2005

HIV/AIDS AND GOVERNANCE IN KENYA

Over two decades since the first AIDS case was described in Kenya, HIV/AIDS still remains a huge problem for the country in its efforts for social and economic development. Responses to the pandemic have evolved over time as people became aware of this new disease, as they experienced illness and death among family members, and as services have developed to confront this epidemic. READ MORE

MAPPING THE FUTURE OF HIV/AIDS, SECURITY AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA

Concept Note for the Joint Academic/NGO Seminar King’s College London, December 6 2005. READ MORE

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF HIV/AIDS, SECURITY AND CONFLICT IN AFRICA

Professor Tony Barnett gave a comprehensive overview of the issues surrounding HIV/AIDS, focusing on the effect of HIV/AIDS on societies at the macro-level and on security. The HIV endemic is a multi faceted threat, the understanding of which is usually plagued with hyperbole, including many strong opinions that are weakly supported. READ MORE

LAW AND HIV/AIDS

Jenny Kuper, LSE
Often there is a gap between what law says and what happens on the ground. There is international law and quite specific issues such as how this affects the training of soldiers, but a central question is how to get international law from ‘up there’ to down with the people. READ MORE

SURVEY OF THE IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS AMONG RURAL AND URBAN NGOS IN UGANDA

This study was conducted on various HIV-AIDS related NGOs in Kampala, Uganda. After the identification of AIDS in 1983, many organizations, individuals and government bodies came up to check the spread of this disease in addition to providing support and care to patients affected by it. READ MORE

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF AIDS LEADERSHIP IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The commitment of high-level government leaders is widely recognized as a key factor in curbing national AIDS epidemics. But where does such leadership come from? This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the determinants of AIDS leadership in 54 developing countries, using the 2003 AIDS Program Effort Index “political support” score as an indicator of political commitment. Explanatory variables measure aspects of political institutions and economic development and integration.  READ MORE

COMMISSION FOR AFRICA: FUNDING AND HIV/AIDS

This is a Justice Africa discussion paper on the report of the Commission for Africa , released in March 2005. The Commission was established to provide a focus for the discussions on Africa at the G8 Summit to be held in Scotland in June 2005.  READ MORE

GOVERNANCE, VIOLENCE AND AIDS IN WEST AFRICA

The African Civil Society Governance and AIDS Initiative’s stated purpose is to raise public understanding of HIV/AIDS as a threat to democratic governance in Africa. The reasons for this threat are the nature of the societal challenge posed by HIV/AIDS, and the considerable difficulties that are faced in ensuring that the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is consistent with both the technical requirements of effective public health policy, and also supportive of democratic governance.  READ MORE

GOVERNANCE AND AIDS IN WEST AFRICA – AN OVERVIEW

The African Civil Society Governance and AIDS Initiative (GAIN) was founded in South Africa in October 2003, and is the centre of a global coalition to address the effect of HIV/AIDS on human rights, democracy and governance in African countries. GAIN’s purpose is to raise public understanding of HIV/AIDS as a challenge to democratic governance in Africa.  READ MORE

JOINT LEARNING INITIATIVE: ‘HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH – OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGE’

The Joint Learning Initiative’s report, ‘Human Resources for Health’, published in December 2004, is the first attempt at a global overview of health professionals. If the report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (December 2001) forwarded figures for what it would cost to deliver health care across the globe, the JLI report addresses the follow-up and equally significant question what human resources are needed to deliver basic health care. READ MORE

SURVEY OF THE IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS AMONG RURAL AND URBAN NGOS IN UGANDA

This study was conducted on various HIV-AIDS related NGOs in Kampala, Uganda. After the identification of AIDS in 1983, many organizations, individuals and government bodies came up to check the spread of this disease in addition to providing support and care to patients affected by it. READ MORE

2004

HIV/AIDS AND THE THREAT TO SECURITY IN AFRICA

Alex de Waal submitted evidence to the U.N. Secretary General’s High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change with regard to the threat HIV/AIDS poses for the Security of Africa on half of Justice Africa and Inter Africa Group,
READ MORE

BRITISH GOVERNMENT POLICY ON AIDS

This briefing note draws upon recent documents on British government policy on HIV/AIDS in Africa, highlighting key concerns for African civil society in the field of HIV/AIDS, democracy and governance. It does not address important AIDS programming issues or questions such as the British stand on providing condoms or voluntary testing. READ MORE

WAR AND HIV PREVALENCE: EVIDENCE FROM TIGRAY ETHIOPIA

This study explores evidence for the impact of the Ethio-Eritrean war of 1998-2000 on HIV prevalence in Tigray region of Ethiopia, where the majority of the Ethiopian Defence Force was stationed during the war, and which witnessed large scale combat, displacement and socio-economic disruption including the growth of a large commercial sex industry. READ MORE

HIV/AIDS AND REGIONAL SECURITY IN AFRICA

The issue of HIV/AIDS and security in Africa has been troubling for policy makers and intellectuals alike. The viability and proper functioning of states may be seriously threatened by the combined impact and interaction of perpetual conflicts, endemic poverty and infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS.  READ MORE

HIV/AIDS, GOVERNANCE AND THE LAW

Africa has proved to be a fertile ground for the growth of HIV. It is host to the largest proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Simultaneously, Africa is also home to populations least able to afford effective governmental intervention to protect of persons living with HIV/AIDS. .  READ MORE

HIV/AIDS, DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNANCE IN SOUTH AFRICA

Six hundred people die from AIDS everyday in South African, 4 million are living with the virus, the first phase to roll out comprehensive treatment is only just being piloted; and yet the African National Congress (ANC) led government just won an overwhelming majority – what does this mean for the fledging democracy?  READ MORE

LEARNING FROM EACH OTHER

An Orphan Care Organization in Uganda reveals a model that promises a breakthrough in the Cycle of Poverty, HIV/AIDS and Food Insecurity.  READ MORE

DON’T ABANDON RWANDA WOMEN AGAIN

At commemorations held in Rwanda and around the world for the 800,000 people who were murdered in the Rwandan genocide 10 years ago, politicians and other leaders said “never again.” Those words, while well intentioned, have a hollow-ness to them: people are still dying of the genocide in Rwanda and the world is still failing them.  READ MORE

OVERVIEW OF THE CHGA COMMISSIONERS’ MEETING MAPUTO, MOZAMBIQUE

The Commission on HIV/AIDS and Governance in Africa (CHGA) was appointed by the United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan in September 2003 under the chairmanship of Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) Dr K. Y. Amaoko.  READ MORE

IS AFRICA DRIVING FORWARD IN REVERSE GEAR?

Ever since the first publicly known HIV/AIDS case in Africa, the pandemic today constitutes a global emergency and one of the most formidable challenges to human life and dignity. It has compromised the enjoyment of human rights, which undermines social and economic development throughout the world at – national, community, family and individual levels.  READ MORE

EVIDENCE FOR THE ``NEW VARIANT FAMINE`` HYPOTHESIS IN AFRICA

The ‘new variant famine’ hypothesis (NVF) provides an analytical framework and a set of predictions regarding future food crises in poor countries stricken by generalized epidemics of HIV/AIDS. This paper summarises the principal claims made by NVF and evaluates recent evidence for and against the hypothesis…  READ MORE

HIV/AIDS and Regional Security in Africa

Principles for Incorporating HIV/AIDS into the Common African Security and Defense Policy and Establishing HIV/AIDS Guidelines for the African Standby Force.  READ MORE

2003

LINKS BETWEEN HIV/AIDS AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is the biggest challenge to democratic governance in Africa today. This presentation is going to focus on just one element of that challenge, namely the considerable difficulties we shall face in ensuring that the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is consistent with both the technical requirements of effective public health policy, and also supportive of democratic governance.  READ MORE

HOW WILL HIV/AIDS TRANSFORM AFRICAN GOVERNANCE?

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is the biggest challenge to democratic governance in Africa today. This presentation is going to focus on just one element of that challenge, namely the considerable difficulties we shall face in ensuring that the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is consistent with both the technical requirements of effective public health policy, and also supportive of democratic governance.  READ MORE

2002

FUCKING SOLDIERS

AIDS activists and policymakers have a taste for military metaphors. They speak of ‘fighting’ AIDS, ‘mobilising as if for war’ and more optimistically, ‘vanquishing’ the disease. Some diseases—smallpox and cholera are cases in point—are amenable to military-style campaigns.  READ MORE

Modeling the Governance Implications of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Africa: First Thoughts

Models of the economic impacts of HIV/AIDS are increasing in quality. An important lacuna is a model for the governance impact of the pandemic. There is a small literature on the fact that the pandemic is expected to have major consequences for peace and security, consisting of a few papers with a broad focus, and others delving into questions about implications for international peacekeeping and military policy. This paper is a first cut at a model for governance outcomes, incorporating economic and demographic models as well. It is necessarily broad and speculative. READ MORE

2001

AIDS-Related National Crises

The HIV/AIDS pandemic will transform Africa as we know it. Historically, pandemic diseases have brought major social, economic and political transformations in their wakes. The Black Death in 14th century Europe killed about one third of the population, transformed labour-intensive agricultural systems, and shattered the religious certainties of the ‘Medieval Renaissance’, with profound cultural and political ramifications. READ MORE

HOW WILL HIV/AIDS TRANSFORM AFRICAN GOVERNANCE?

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is the biggest challenge to democratic governance in Africa today. This presentation is going to focus on just one element of that challenge, namely the considerable difficulties we shall face in ensuring that the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa is consistent with both the technical requirements of effective public health policy, and also supportive of democratic governance.  READ MORE